File systems NTFS, HFS+ and EXT4

 The file systems are types of computer’s extra storage devices with some specific capacity. Each of the files offer space to write and read digital information. Each byte of information stored in the files has its storage address created in the files. This makes the files applicable for specific functions within the computers. These files differ is characteristics depending on the host Operating System, their functionality, and many other features. Such would make one better than another for specific use for a running OS per time. However, the term better in the file system use is subjective and may show altered meanings. As such we cannot have a better comparison of the files based on their primary differences beginning from the running OS and many other functions. It would only be possible to consider the files distinctively.

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 NTFS (New Technology File System)

 This file is used alongside Windows NT and OS. It carries in it recurring features as those of the IBM’s HPFS. The file can run up to 16 TB in size while the partitioned file would have up to 256 TB in space. The size of the file offers a comparative advantage to the file over other files. This authenticates its common use among many other files such as the FAT files. The file also has extra capacity to accommodate 255 characters in length.


 HFS+ file is common among many computer users because of its relevance. However, it functions under a Mac OS and in alternatively it sets standards that are found in most SSD reviews which are run in US labs. HFS+ supports all types of storage devices (Kleiman 24). It also supports journaling and partitions that are typically mounted on UNIX or the Linux systems. The file also runs on second-hand systems supported by tools such as the HFS for Windows by Paragon Software and the MacDrive by Mediafour. These tools enable it function as third-party functionalities.


 EXT4 is a native Linux file system that is built as its associates EXT2 and EXT3. Like others, the file system is categorized under the active developments and improvements files. It is also a further development of the EXT3, built purposefully to support the optimization of file allocation, information and extended file traits. This explains the reason EXT4 is commonly used as root file for many Linux installations.

 Activity 2

 The ultra-Compare is usually given the access to use the system’s memory for a quicker reach to data that needs to be processed during the use of the application. The access can become complex when the Ultra Compare uses all the memory allocated to it. This creates a utility dilemma that would require virtual memory to solve. Virtual memory makes up space on the hard drive that is allocated by the OS to be used as a reserve memory in cases where the RAM memory limit has been exceeded. The virtual memory, therefore, works on the principle of supplementary memory to the system memory when it exceeds it RAM limit, therefore, making the system operations slower than usual.

 For instance, taking two files of Ultra Compare each at 50 MB, this would automatically produce a memory intensive process. For most PC users, one will be able to run web browsing, ultra-editing, email, anti-virus and other PC operations (Morin 41). The many functions run on the PC at that particular time coupled with the RAM size can exceed the available system’s and RAM limits. The huge workload would make the windows slower thereby having some information kept in the RAM shifted to the hard disk where there would be some free space. These many activities may have the OS direct further memory usage to virtual memory to allow the applications run without compromising the PC’s memory.

Activity 3

How Linux Permission works and Setup

 Linux works on three categories of user permissions such as the User (u) who is the owner of the file, group (g) which represents other users connoted as a group that also have access to the files and the other (o) which represents everyone else. To have the Linux permissions, the modes are set as read (r), write (w), and execute (x) (Kleiman 33). The modes exhibit different meaning for the files and directories used. Every mode also gives forth a corresponding permission that gives a resultant command. This makes the modes coherent to specific permissions. In so saying, it implies that mode r would correspond to a permission pr and not permission pw. Permission pw will only be permutable to mode w. For the case of numerical, the idea is to have the files and directories within a directory by using the R-option on the directory’s Richmond command. For instance, to be able to setup a Linux permission of “read” and “execute” that has got access to the files and directories, you will be able to type the distinct command for the permissions. Someone will also be able to achieve this through changing the modes for the file hierarchies that are rooted in the file rather than changing the files themselves. However, the reverse where files may be changed for files may result in a challenge due to interchanging of the commands. Nevertheless, setting up a Linux permission would require owning a root that declaims its use by others upon which it is rendered useless. Such would be reliant on web servers that work. This does not in any way refute claims that modern technology has got other avenues of setting up Linux permission.